Internet of Things (IoT)

The concept of connecting the devices or with the on and off switch to the internet is referred to as the internet of things. It is the system which can transfer data over a network of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines and animals or people without requiring the interaction of human with humans or even human with the computer. Various multiple advantages technologies like machine learning, commodity sensor, Realtime analytics, etc. are the basis to evolve the concept of the Internet of Things.


The first modified Coke vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University, which is the first internet-connected appliance leads the concept of networking of smart devices in 1982. Computers of the 21st century produced the basic vision of the IoT. In 1999, the term Internet of Things was most liked by Kevin Ashton although he prefers the name Internet for things for this concept, the Internet of things is most likely accepted. All the things that have sensors attached to them and can transmit data from one object to another with the help of the internet.

IoT Devices:

Wireless sensors, software, computer devices, and actuators are usually included in IoT devices. The devices are connected or with the other devices through the internet and they can transfer data from one device to another to person automatically without the aid of human interaction. The most modified example in this field is that the sensors in the car automatically identifies the traffic rush on the road and sends a message to the person whom you are going to meet, about your delay. Pacemakers are another example that can act as an IoT device. By 2020, there will be more than 20.4 billion devices that can act as IoT devices. It is predicting that up to 2025, there will be more than 64 billion IoT devices.

How Does It work?

IoT devices are connected through the internet and they send and receive information, messages, data, etc. between them via internet connections without the aid of human instructions. There would be four major components that are necessary for an IoT system to work;

  • The device that has to perform
  • The local network which provides the proper communication
  • Internet for transfer of information
  • Back-end services

The device may be sensors or actuators that sense and then process the signal to the local network where there are gateways that translates the signal to appropriate protocols for internet traveling. The signal travels over the internet to the back-end services that may be a server or the user’s control devices.


There are a lot of IoT devices having a very extensive set of applications, so they are divided into three major categories

  • Consumer Applications:

The IoT devices that are created for consumer uses. These may include the connected vehicles, wearable technology, home automation or appliances with the remote monitoring capability. The smart home is one of the growing technological application that is using the connection of IoT devices to make automated homes.

  • Commercial Applications:

The commercial applications of the IoT Devices include the medical and healthcare, transportation, vehicular communication systems on the commercial scale.

  • Infrastructural Applications:

Sustainable urban or rural infrastructures are monitored and controlled through these devices. The key application of the IoT in this field is the monitoring of bridges, railway tracks, and on and offshore wind-farms. Infrastructural applications include the Metropolitan Scale Deployments, energy management, and environmental monitoring.

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